Humans are a species steeped deeply in symbolism. And it is with this mindset that we create a social order and its accompanying observances called laws, rules, regulations, beliefs and so forth. For example, we have adopted the practice of dividing the cycles of observed change by various associations to environmental events such as the appearance and intensity of the Sun as the Earth rotates, though many think the Sun moves across the sky. When coupled to environmental changes we call weather, we have devised several identifying schemes called week, month and year. And accumulations of years are variously referred to as decade, century, period, age, epoch and so forth. In labeling (naming) the days of the week, there is the world-wide adoption of using names which describe three planets (Sun-day, Moon... Mon-day, Saturn... Satur-day; and three day-names which reference ancient Norse gods: Tyr for Tuesday, Wodan for Wednesday, Thor for Thursday... while Friday was named after the Anglo-saxon goddess Frige. Though other peoples used different names, and the Roman-Greek tradition was to reference all the days of the week to a planet: Sun, Moon, Mars, Mercury, Jupiter Venus, Saturn)— this in no way suggests that our present usage will not change in the coming centuries.
The point to be made is that humans made up the names and the divisions of times based on observed environmental events, even if the associations and logic thereof, are not clear to us today. Though a given period of time was marked by some human event, the human event was quite often based on some association to an environmental event or observation. In other words the days of the week, our reckoning of time, are the result of consciously created correspondences. However, we are now aware of the fact that our bodies, our physiology, mark environmental events with what are sometimes referred to as circadian rhythms:
(Circadian Rhythm): the cyclical 24-hour period of human biological activity.
Within the circadian (24-hour) cycle, a person usually sleeps approximately 8 hours and is awake 16. During the wakeful hours, mental and physical functions are most active and tissue cell growth increases. During sleep, voluntary muscle activities nearly disappear and there is a decrease in metabolic rate, respiration, heart rate, body temperature, and blood pressure. The activity of the digestive system increases during the resting period, but that of the urinary system decreases. Hormones secreted by the body, such as the stimulant epinephrine (adrenaline), are released in maximal amounts about two hours before awakening so that the body is prepared for activity.
The circadian cycle is controlled by a region of the brain known as the hypothalamus, which is the master centre for integrating rhythmic information and establishing sleep patterns. A part of the hypothalamus called the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) receives signals about light and dark from the retina of the eye. Upon activation by light, special photoreceptor cells in the retina transmit signals to the SCN via neurons of the retinohypothalamic tract. The signals are further transmitted to the pineal gland, a small cone-shaped structure that is attached to the posterior end (behind the hypothalamus) of the third cerebral ventricle and that is responsible for the production of a hormone called melatonin. Cyclical fluctuations of melatonin are vital for maintaining a normal circadian rhythm. When the retina detects light, melatonin production is inhibited and wakefulness ensues; light wavelength (colour) and intensity are important factors affecting the extent to which melatonin production is inhibited. In contrast, in response to darkness, melatonin production is increased, and the body begins to prepare for sleep. Sleep-inducing reactions, such as decreases in body temperature and blood pressure, are generated when melatonin binds to receptors in the SCN.
The natural time signal for the circadian pattern is the change from darkness to light. Where daylight patterns are not consistent, as in outer space, regimented cycles are established to simulate the 24-hour day. If one tries to break the circadian rhythm by ignoring sleep for a number of days, psychological disorders begin to arise. The human body can learn to function in cycles ranging between 18 and 28 hours, but any variance greater or less than this usually causes the body to revert to a 24-hour cycle. Even in totally lighted areas such as the subpolar twilight zone, the body has regular cycles of sleep and wakefulness once the initial adjustment has been made.
Any drastic shift in the circadian cycle requires a certain period for readjustment. Each individual reacts to these changes differently. Travel across a number of time zones is commonly accompanied by circadian rhythm stress, sometimes called “jet lag.” For example, jet travel between Tokyo and New York City creates a time difference of 10 hours; it usually takes several days for the body to readjust to the new day-night pattern. Too-frequent shifts in circadian patterns, such as several transoceanic flights a month, can lead to mental and physical fatigue. Preflight or postflight adaptation can be achieved by gradually changing one's sleeping patterns to simulate those that will be necessary in the new environment. Space travel is even more extreme. Astronauts first encounter rapid changes in the day-night cycle while in Earth's orbit. Beyond this, the void becomes a constant blackness with no observable distinction between daytime and nighttime.
The circadian cycle can alter the effectiveness of some drugs. For example, the timing of administration of hormonal drugs so as to be in accord with their natural circadian production pattern seems to place less stress on the body and produce more effective medical results.
Source: "Circadian Rhythm." Encyclopædia Britannica Ultimate Reference Suite, 2013.
The operative idea to be gleaned from the above article is that biology is affected by the events which produce the day/night sequence. If this sequence is affected, so will biological rhythms. In other words, physiology, in its own way, "consciously" adopts references which indicate changes in what is called time periods. We sometimes alternatively label these references as "biological rhythms":
(Biological Rhythm:) periodic biological fluctuation in an organism that corresponds to, and is in response to, periodic environmental change. Examples of such change include cyclical variations in the relative position of the Earth to the Sun and to the Moon and in the immediate effects of such variations, e.g., day alternating with night, high tide alternating with low tide.
The internal mechanism by which such a rhythmic phenomenon occurs and is maintained even in the absence of the apparent environmental stimulus is termed a biological clock. When an animal that functions according to such a clock is rapidly translocated to a geographic point where the environmental cycle is no longer synchronous with the animal's cycle, the clock continues for a time to function synchronously with the original environmental cycle. Humans similarly transported over great distances often experience fatigue and lowered efficiency for several days, a phenomenon known as “jet lag,” or jet syndrome.
A rhythm with a 24-hour cycle is called a circadian (from Latin circa, “about”; di, “day”—i.e., “about a day”), solar day, diel, daily, diurnal, or nychthemeral rhythm. A lunar tidal rhythm—the regular ebb and flow of oceans and very large inland bodies of water—subjects seashore plants and animals to a rhythmic change; typically two high and two low tides occur each day (about 24.8 hours). Many species of shorebirds exhibit this rhythm by seeking food only when beaches are exposed at low tide. Monthly rhythms, averaging approximately 29.5 days, are reflected in reproductive cycles of many marine plants and in those of many animals. Annual rhythms are reflected in the reproduction and growth of most terrestrial plants and animals in the temperate zones.
Source: "Biological Rhythm." Encyclopædia Britannica Ultimate Reference Suite, 2013.
Clearly, biological species adapt to the rhythms of the environment to which they are exposed. Their lifestyle represents what can be analogously referred to as a "conscious" effort to coincide with that which is in equilibrium to the presented environmental conditions one is subjected to... be it a seashore, desert, mountain, forest, Savannah, living on a space ship or some distant planet. And just because a species may not reference their daily biological or social or economic rhythms with distinctively precise labels, does not mean the cycles do not occur, and there are not any behavioral expressions there of. Biological effects of environmental rhythms no doubt have left their mark on the human nervous system, if not the entire structural formation of higher brain development and functions, even if we do not yet have a grasp of how such an architectural arrangement and functioning correspond on a one -to- one relational representation. Our mind... as it were, our thoughts and emotions— as structured and demonstrative symbols of environmental rhythms, are expressions of the practiced conservation of environmental patterns that are flexible to changes in that they are adaptable; but there is a limit as to how adaptable biological activity can be... since it was developed in an environmental system of resource constraints.
Circadian rhythms (from Human Nervous System article)
Humans have inevitably adapted to the orderly rhythms of the universe. These biological cycles are called circadian rhythms, from the Latin circa (“about”) and dies (“day”). They are essentially endogenous, built into the central nervous system. Circadian activities include sleeping and waking, rest and activity, taking in of fluid, formation of urine, body temperature, cardiac output, oxygen consumption, cell division, and the secreting activity of endocrine glands. Rhythms are upset by shift work and by rapid travel into different time zones. After long journeys it takes several days for the endogenous rhythm generator to become synchronized to the local time.
The alternation of night and day has been important in inducing rhythms affecting many physiological functions. Even in isolation, rhythms related to the time of day are maintained from clues giving information about light and dark. Curiously, the endogenous sleep-wake rhythm deviates slightly from the Earth's 24-hour cycle; a bird's endogenous cycle is 23 hours, and the human cycle is 25 hours. In both cases the cycle is corrected by features of the environment called zeitgebers (“time givers”). One zeitgeber is the Earth's magnetic field, which changes on a 24-hour cycle as the Earth turns on its axis. More obvious and important a zeitgeber is the alternation of dark and light.
The suprachiasmatic nucleus of the hypothalamus is essential for the rhythms of sleeping, waking, rest, and activity. It is not surprising that this nucleus is adjacent to the incoming fibres from the eye; for this reason, the light-dark cycle appears to be the most important zeitgeber for circadian rhythms. The suprachiasmatic nucleus is most active in light. In experiments on the hamster, when the nucleus is destroyed, the rhythms of general activity, drinking, sleeping, waking, body temperature, and some endocrine secretion are disrupted.
Peter W. Nathan
Source: "Nervous System, Human" Encyclopædia Britannica Ultimate Reference Suite, 2013.
While many of us observe and catalogue recurring behavior of ourselves and other with respect to body functions such as sleep, eat, sex and overall mood, such recurring behaviour as many people holding a pen or pencil with three fingers, or that eye glasses organized into three types as monofocals, bifocals, trifocals and that we end a sentence with one of three types of punctuation (period, question mark, exclamation point), either has no relevance to most or the recurrence of the same pattern is viewed as an irrelevance. And if this same pattern is coupled to hundreds upon hundreds of other behavioral activities referenced as ideas, the thought of an expressed biological rhythm with respect to cognitive behavior never comes to mind. And if it does, those who quickly resort to some disparaging assessment usually indicate how easily they become confused, disoriented and overwhelmed by being confronted by such a simple reference to a complex organization of seemingly random or disparate forms of cognitive behavior related to a given species.
Whereas if the same type of overt cognitive behavior occurs amongst everyone, the behavior is referred to as a universal rhythm, but if the overt word usage (clothing, skin color) differs, the covert (underlying) structure is not granted the benefit of a doubt for being similar. The usage of different labels in different subjects becomes an expressed prejudice that denies any underlying similarity... like judging a person by their clothing, religion, music interest, race, language or socio-economic class. Different subjects are treated as different races, genders or cultural groups whereby no underlying similarities of basic structure are permitted, and any variation of usage is a means by which any and all similarities are denied... and may be referenced with a derogatory word such as numerology, if similarities are referenced with numbers instead of some functionality... because functionality represents a type of sociability... like a soap opera... like a story to entertain with or be entertained by.
Because we humans are subject to development in an environment of rhythms, not only do we create means of referencing such rhythms, but we create additional forms of rhythms such as dance, speech, and thinking rhythms. Likewise, because our basic biological functions mimic the rhythms of the environment to which we are subjected, so must we consider that all of genetics... like its triplet coding system and the 3 -to- 1 ratio also reflect a recurring environmental rhythm that is detectable. And if the rhythm changes, so does our genetics, biology, physiology, and subsequent sociology, philosophy, psychology, religion, economics policy, etc... And just because earlier generations were not aware of their physiological rhythms, they were nonetheless affected by them. Likewise, just because many people are not aware of the ongoing adaptation to deteriorating environmental rhythms, does not mean they aren't occurring and affecting the way we think about everything, including the type of government we should have.
But not only can alterations in the rhythm take place by placing a person (or other biological creature/function... such as chemical) in a different environment with a different cycle, but changes can be affected by drugs such as alcohol and caffeine, or a means by which the body can receive environmental information such as light and darkness, or sounds, smells and tactile sensations related to or associated with the light/dark sequence.
Because Stock Market behavior is sometimes referred to as cycles, it is not without merit to refer to social behavior such as relative calm, riots, rebellions, revolutions and associated ideologies as being cyclical in nature, though the occurrence amongst different groups in different times and places makes identifying the cause of a given representative cycle (when looking upon all of humanity at once), is at present made difficult because it is not customary to think of human behavior in such a large contextual situation with respect to behavioral rhythms related to the species on the same planet with regional influences on larger biological rhythms causing regional expressions of rhythmic behavior. While we have accumulated information with respect to different types of rhythms related species-wide, variations due to individualized or regional group specificity is made difficult because of the variations in behavioral symbolism that is used and we do not yet have a firm grasp of how to collect, much less analyze such behavior, which affords critiques a means to deny any correlation that is made because on an unestablished recognition that such a global event as regionalization of biorhytmic behavior even takes place, particularly in the sense of having adopted a multitude of expressions which conceal the existence of similarities. Nonetheless, universal types of rhythms have been recognized despite culture, gender, race and other regional differences in environmental settings.
A zeitgeber is any external or environmental cue that entrains or synchronizes an organism's biological rhythms to the Earth's 24-hour light/dark cycle and 12 month cycle.
Researchers have shown that the 24-hour circadian clock also influences cognitive performance in a wide variety of paradigms, including serial search, verbal reasoning, working memory tasks, suppressing wrong answers, and manual dexterity. Performance on these tasks varies over the course of a day, with each type of task having a unique daily rhythm. For example, the best time to perform a working memory task tends to be midday, while immediate memory is best in the morning, and simple processing is ideally performed in the evening. In addition, individual differences among participants can have an effect on daily rhythms in performance. Studies have found that children perform mental math exercises most successfully in the morning, but young adults' performance peaks in the evening. This variation in the performance of various tasks is attributable to a number of factors, including relative working memory load, change in strategy, hemispheric dominance, ability to suppress wrong answers, age, level of practice, and morningness-eveningness, many of which fluctuate according to time of day. Based on these findings, researchers conclude that factors that disturb circadian rhythms can also affect cognitive performance.
Disturbances in zeitgebers can exert a negative influence on emotion and mood as well as cognitive functioning. The disturbance of biological rhythms by zeitgebers is theorized to increase risk for some forms of psychopathology. There is strong evidence that individuals with depression experience irregular biological rhythms, including disrupted sleep-wake cycles, temperature, and cortisol rhythms. These findings support the theory first proposed by Ehlers, Frank, and Kupfer in 1988 that says that stressful life events can lead to depressive episodes by disrupting social and biological rhythms, leading to negative symptoms like sleep disturbance that can trigger depression in vulnerable individuals. Recent work has also demonstrated that interventions like light therapy, sleep deprivation, and some pharmacological antidepressants may be effective in treating depression by reordering these rhythms to their natural state. Such interventions influence an individual's mood, body temperature, cortisol levels, and melatonin production, all of which appear to be irregular in depressed individuals.
Social zeitgebers and mood disorders
Some researchers have suggested that the disturbances in biological rhythms present in depressed individuals may actually be the result of previous disruptions in social interactions, which serve as cues for those rhythms. This possibility may help to explain the relationship between stressful life events and the development of mood disorders. For example, newly married or cohabiting couples often need to adjust to each other's sleeping rhythms when beginning to share the same bed for the first time. This adjustment can be difficult and may lead to disruptions in sleep quality and quantity, and possibly increase risk for depression as a result. Researchers have attempted to explore the effect life events that disturb social rhythms might have on depressive symptoms in a number of ways.
A number of studies have looked at whether the loss of a spouse, a significant negative life event often associated with increased depressive symptoms, might lead to increased depression via disrupted social rhythms. In addition to grief, bereaved spouses may also be dealing with changes in numerous social zeitgebers. For instance, bereaved spouses may suddenly be faced with changes in meal times, responsibilities for additional chores, social expectations, or simply the reality of living day to day without one's usual conversational partner. Taken together, findings from studies on bereaved spouses indicate that when bereavement is associated with changes in social rhythms, depressive symptoms are likely to increase; however, if bereaved individuals are able to maintain social rhythms after the death of their spouse, increased depression is less likely. These findings suggest that social rhythm stability may not be entirely dependent on life events, but rather has some trait-like elements as well, since some individuals may be more likely to maintain social rhythms than others following the occurrence of a significant life event.
Recent studies have also found a connection between the disruption of social rhythms and the triggering of manic episodes in bipolar disorder. Differentiating between zeitgeber disturbances that lead to depression and those that lead to manic episodes has proven difficult. However, in both unipolar and bipolar depression, the concept of social zeitgebers as potential risk factors has influenced the development of interventions to address this risk. For bipolar disorder, Interpersonal and Social Rhythm Therapy (IPSRT) is meant to regulate and normalize an individual's social rhythms, including meal times, personal relationships, exercise, and social demands. By regulating social rhythms, therapists hope to normalize in turn individuals' biological rhythms. Studies have not found much evidence that IPSRT improves mood, but individuals undergoing IPSRT experience longer periods between bipolar episodes, indicating that normalizing social rhythms may have a pretentative effect.
Seasonal affective disorder
Seasonal affective disorder may occur as a result of deficiencies in zeitgebers (such as light) during the winter months that stimulate the reward activation system, resulting in a depressed mood. Some studies have pointed to the hormone melatonin, which is regulated by circadian rhythms, as a possible mechanism. Because circadian clocks synchronize human sleep-wake cycles to coincide with periods of the day during which reward potential is highest – that is, during the daytime – and recent studies have determined that daily rhythms in reward activation in humans are modulated by circadian clocks as well, external influences on those rhythms may influence an individual's mood.
Source: Wikipedia: Zeitgeber
With respect to Revolution, Birth Order and Rebelliousness was an adopted thesis by Frank Sulloway that is disputed by Frederic Townsend in his "Reconstructing the Research in Born To Rebel. The idea of "Birth Order" refers to a type of behavioral complex related to a formula of biological rhythm not well understood, but has many adherents who compile their own rationale of interpretation, much like Astrologists who amass a following of believers... regardless if they are actually right or wrong. The fact that many people believe in the connections represents another biological rhythm referencing a type of recurring cognition, just like religion and a belief in a given type of governing structure such as Communism, Democracy, Socialism, or what have you. And yet another variation of referencing cyclicity of behavior is illustrated in a book entitled: "Its Where You Played the Game: How Youth Baseball Determines the Personality of the American Male, by Mike Ryan. In short, we think in cycles and about cycles, within cycles we may not even be aware of or take for granted.
Yet, cycles can be like a selectively viewed portion of water or something in the water flowing down a stream whose observed slow pace is a perceptual misidentification and misunderstanding of the quickened pace which can occur as the cycle continues on a course heading for a waterfall that may cause the destruction of that on or below the surface of the water. In other words, a type of cyclic occurrence can dupe us into thinking a given way. For example, if we live in a time and place where only white swans have been observed or been made mention of, the report of someone having seen black swans may not be believed, even if they were to bring one with them as a demonstration. The exhibition of one example might be interpreted to be a fluke of nature, unless it is regarded in the other extreme as a good omen, like the occasion of a white bison is by Native Americans. One might even come across the idea that even the existence of an entire flock is due to some irregularity in the nature of a given region, and is not the standard nature of all nature because black swans do not occur with regularity amongst all regions where swans are known to occur.
And this is the way in which different examples of three-patterned ideas are being viewed... as isolated events that don't have any meaning except as the regional occurrence of an anomaly. Different human ideas which contain the same underlying pattern, like the observation of all races having red blood, are frequently described as a coincidence, weird, or a "forced fit" of representative similarity... like those who once advanced the idea that the savage race of American natives all belonged to the same global human race, despite their differences in language, clothing and Customs. Yet, even though they have adopted the language, clothing and customs of the dominant cultural, the are still viewed by some as being different, and many of themselves do likewise. Differences and not similarities is the characteristic dominant focus of such people. They are like two people fighting each other while aboard a raft headed for a waterfall that they do not see because they are more interested in being vigilant of one another, and do not hear the increasing sounds of the crashing water against rocks, because their shouting voices and echoing brains prevent them from hearing anything than one another's accusations of being different.
This is how many sociological comparisons take place when thinking about the development of a new form of government. Many internet sources typically focus on denoting the occurrences of one or more perceived wrongs that shouldn't be done, and are not analyzed in the context of whether they are being used to confront some wrong as seen from someone else's perspective... whether the judgment itself is right or wrong. For example, in the perspective of Obama and his group of advisers, they thought the best way to address a perceived deficiency in medical care was to establish a type of coverage viewed as a Socialist approach in terms of a National medical coverage, though a type of it was already being used in the forms of Medicare, Medicade, and Veterans health care, though they may not customarily be revered to as Socialist practices. Even though in retrospect we can see that the Obamacare style of a Nationalized Health Care system is faulty and is being viewed as something we can do without, the idea of a Nationalized Health Care system remains as a cyclical idea. Similarly, the ideas for establishing a Nationalized vehicle insurance program, Nationalized life insurance program, a Nationalize police force, and amongst other ideas... the idea of having a Nationalized, if not Globalized government system, because current formulas are particularly faulty.
Whereas the practice of an Actual Communism, Democracy and Socialism are thought of as National (if not applicable global) forms of government, no honest "Actual" model thereof is or has ever been adopted. The recurrence for thinking in terms of either a Communism or Socialism is an example of a recurring cognitive cyclicity brought about by environmental pressures. They keep recurring because that which influences the recycling in our thoughts is taking place like a current along which more environmental deteriorations are taking place. And yet, all forms of currently considered government (and their economic policies) may be little more than the sparkles seen on a selection of water as it passes beneath a bridge supporting our lives between two fixed points of beginning and end because we refuse to beyond the types of perception generated from being within the respective sphere of a given environment. Hence, the adoption of a New Government philosophy must be far reaching enough to set our sights on living elsewhere than the present confinement of Earth- influenced cycles of biological development, physiological constraints and cognitive symbolism coordinated to a self-identity which oppresses our potentials for growth.
We need a formula of Government which is a path finder for humanity, and not merely the keeper of a flame abiding to traditions which are following a trail leading to an eventual demise by way of an incremental fashion that gives the impression of a pace like viewing the slow motion of fish in an aquarium, which promotes a false view of reality. It is an expressed symbolism we must venture away from in order to give ourselves the opportunity to move beyond all the present social nonsense being used as variations of survival mechanisms called religion, politics, science, and known by multiple other names as well. What's in a name? The name of Cenocracy can lead us towards a better realization of what the human species can be, if only we will remove ourselves from the present environmental cage acting as an artificial eco-system reflected in how we treat pets and domesticated foodstuffs. Humanity must come to cut the umbilical cord between itself and the Earth, itself and the planetary system, and itself and the Galaxy... at least in the short-term. Other separations may no doubt occur along the way and afterwards.