Let's face it, humanity has a lousy definition, accompanying practice, and analysis of peace.
Very often, as a substitute... in order to conceal the lousiness to which Peace is defined, practiced and analyzed— the word love is used. Love will do this and love will do that, and love will create a better place if only everyone had love in their heart. To love is to live better... to live happier and more fulfilled. If you have not loved, you have not lived. And yet, like so many considerations of mind, the definition, practice and analysis of love is different between people, places and life forms. Let us look at a definition from the Merriam-Webster dictionary and thesaurus:
1love \'l?v\ n [ME, fr. OE lufu; akin to OHG luba love, OE le-of dear, L lube-re, libe-re to please] (bef. 12c) 1 a (1): strong affection for another arising out of kinship or personal ties ‹maternal ~ for a child› (2): attraction based on sexual desire : affection and tenderness felt by lovers (3): affection based on admiration, benevolence, or common interests ‹~ for his old schoolmates› b : an assurance of love ‹give her my ~› 2 : warm attachment, enthusiasm, or devotion ‹~ of the sea› 3 a : the object of attachment, devotion, or admiration ‹baseball was his first ~› b (1): a beloved person : darling — often used as a term of endearment (2)Brit— used as an informal term of address 4 a : unselfish loyal and benevolent concern for the good of another: as (1): the fatherly concern of God for humankind (2): brotherly concern for others b : a person's adoration of God 5 : a god or personification of love 6 : an amorous episode : love affair 7 : the sexual embrace : copulation 8 : a score of zero (as in tennis) 9 capChristian Science: god — at love : holding one's opponent scoreless in tennis — in love : inspired by affection 2love vb, loved lov·ing vt(bef. 12c) 1 : to hold dear : cherish 2 a : to feel a lover's passion, devotion, or tenderness for b (1): caress (2): to fondle amorously (3): to copulate with 3 : to like or desire actively : take pleasure in ‹loved to play the violin› 4 : to thrive in ‹the rose ~s sunlight› vi: to feel affection or experience desire
Here's another variation of love's definition from the wordweb dictionary:
In the above two examples as well as the former definitions of Peace occurring on Let's Talk Peace 2, we do not see a reference to one another. In other words, the word "Peace" is not mentioned in the above definitions of Love, and "Love" is not mentioned in the definitions of Peace. While the reader may well come across an exchanged usage in some dictionary or someone's personal definition thereof, the absence of such needs to be noted. It suggests that the two concepts, however crude or distinct may interpret them, are not inter-changeable nor companions... in the human mind. If they were closely associated, then this would be noted... unless they represent a situation that is taken for granted... just like peace and love are... even though most people might disagree.
To disagree means that one's definitions, practice and analysis of peace and love are individualized... they are not thought of in terms of a global application. While love often does accompany a peaceful situation and vice versa, the relationship is obscured... like family members that recognize each other's presence in a crowd but the crowd does not share in the same presence of mind. Here's a selection about a study done on Love that some readers may not be familiar with:
(On Love was a) philosophical discourse by Stendhal, published in 1822 as De l'amour. The work was prompted by Stendhal's hopeless love for Métilde Dembowski. The first part of On Love is an analysis of love, in which Stendhal lists four kinds of love:
Stendhal also outlines seven progressive stages of love, from admiration to “crystallization,” or the process by which the lover attributes all types of perfection to the beloved. In the second part of the work Stendhal presents his views, considered radical at the time, against marriage and favouring the full education and moral liberty of women.
Source: "On Love." Encyclopædia Britannica Ultimate Reference Suite, 2013.
pseudonym of Marie-henri Beyle
born Jan. 23, 1783, Grenoble, France
died March 23, 1842, Paris
One of the most original and complex French writers of the first half of the 19th century, chiefly known for his works of fiction. His finest novels are Le Rouge et le noir (1830; The Red and the Black) and La Chartreuse de Parme (1839; The Charterhouse of Parma).
Source: "Stendhal." Encyclopædia Britannica Ultimate Reference Suite, 2013.
Another (more present day) study on love was done by Robert Sternberg entitled the Triangular Theory of Love. Here is an excerpt from the Wikipedia article:
Triangular theory of love
Not to be confused with Love triangle.
The triangular theory of love is a theory of love developed by psychologist Robert Sternberg. Presented in the year 1985, Sternberg was a member of the Psychology Department at Yale University. During his time as a professor, Sternberg emphasized his research in the fields of intelligence, creativity, wisdom, leadership, thinking styles, ethical reasoning, love, and hate. In the context of interpersonal relationships, "the three components of love, according to the triangular theory, are an intimacy component, a passion component, and a decision/commitment component."
There are three components of love as follows:
Passion: Passion can be associated with either physical arousal or emotional stimulation. Passion is defined in three ways:
Intimacy: Intimacy is described as the feelings of closeness and attachment to one another. This tends to strengthen the tight bond that is shared between those two individuals. Additionally, having a sense of intimacy helps create the feeling of being at ease with one another, in the sense that the two parties are mutual in their feelings.
Intimacy is primarily defined as something of a personal or private nature; familiarity.
Commitment: Unlike the other two blocks, commitment involves a conscious decision to stick with one another. The decision to remain committed is mainly determined by the level of satisfaction that a partner derives from the relationship. There are three ways to define commitment:
"The amount of love one experiences depends on the absolute strength of these three components, and the type of love one experiences depends on their strengths relative to each other." Different stages and types of love can be explained as different combinations of these three elements; for example, the relative emphasis of each component changes over time as an adult romantic relationship develops. A relationship based on a single element is less likely to survive than one based on two or three elements.
Reference numbers cited above:
One is compelled to ask, because of an absence in referencing the concept of peace, whether there is more or less love in its absence? With respect to "absence", it clearly is absent from the mind's of the love researchers, or they might have well give some indication of its presence in their thoughts within the context of their research or writing.
Let us mention that with respect to the dichotomy of peace/war (conflict), a study of love (as indicated above) does not explicitly define the presence in terms of a distinct oppositional formula such as for example (love/hate), nor a complementary form such (love/partnership)... with the word partnership involving one or more people, places and things, including a peaceful arrangement. However, other number patterns are evident and they reference an inclination to a conservation of thought. Whereas Stendahl spoke of 4 kinds of love with 7 stages, Sternberg utilizes a recurring "three" organizational methodology; and neither emphasize (at least in the above examples), a pattern-of-two such as in the case that humanity attends to the phenomena of peace/war (conflict) with. These enumerated patterns, because of differences in appearance and types of recurrences in varying time periods, places, people and events; is a tell-tale sign of a type of brain activity.
Since there are no consistently appearing more complex and quantitative patterns customarily being used globally, the one's there are represent a specific type of brain activity enumeration that may or may not be specific only to humans... but can be found occurring amongst different life forms inhabiting the same planet... even though differences of biology and structural functionality determine how the same patterns may be exhibited. Yet, even though humanity has what is believed to be a superior brain and hence intelligence, it will regurgitate the same patterns identifiable in insects, according to the incorporated design. While humans may speak of various three-patterned ideas in different subject areas, the behavior (seen on a basic level) may actually suggest a similar environmental influence as the three-patterned sounds heard in the Cicada:
Any of a group of sound-producing insects (order Homoptera) that have two pairs
of membranous wings, prominent compound eyes, and three simple eyes (ocelli). Cicadas
are medium to large in size, ranging from 2 to 5 cm (0.8 to 2 inches). Male cicadas
produce loud noises by vibrating membranes (timbals) near the base of the abdomen.
Most North American cicadas produce rhythmical ticks, buzzes, or whines, although in
some species the “song” is musical. Eggs are usually laid in woody plant tissues that
drop from the plant when, or shortly after, the eggs hatch. Newly hatched nymphs
burrow into the ground where they suck juices from roots of perennial plants. Nymphs
usually undergo five molts during the several years required to reach maturity.
Although not ordinarily considered a pest, the females, if numerous, may damage
young saplings during their egg laying.
About 1,500 species of cicadas are known. With the exception of two species of hairy cicadas in the family Tettigaretidae that are found only in southeastern Australia, including Tasmania, cicadas belong to the family Cicadidae and are tropical and occur in deserts, grasslands, and forests. In addition to the dog-day cicada (Tibicen and others) that appears yearly in midsummer, there are also periodic cicadas. Among the most fascinating and best-known are the 17-year cicada (often erroneously called the 17-year locust) and the 13-year cicada (Magicicada). These species occur in large numbers in chronologically and geographically isolated broods.
The several species are easily recognized by differences in songs, behaviour, and morphology. Males of each species have three distinct sound responses:
Source: "Cicada." Encyclopædia Britannica Ultimate Reference Suite, 2013.
Is there actually a three-patterned sound being emitted, or do humans only think there is because of an over-riding three-patterned auditory system as described on Let's Talk Peace 2.
Here's a few short references to other three-patterned sound emitting insects, though the "caw-caw-caw" sometimes heard in crows, and the "woof- woof- woof" sometimes heard in dogs, might be thought of as environmentally influenced biologically-based parallels:
Yet, if an insect doesn't typically emit sounds, might not the same environmental influence direct it towards some other three-patterned configuration? And if not a recurring three-patterned physical-activity, vocal, physical/biological-structure "expression", could not the pattern be two-based or otherwise... and yet still reflect a conservation? Hence, the dichotomy of the human peace/war (conflict) concept may be causing humanity to achieve an unsustainable form of peace is because it is caught in an environmental situation which makes its brain "loop" or act like a vehicle being rocked back and forth trying to free it from a mud hole... be it a lingering type of:
In fact, the usage of food and beverage ingredients, air pollution, etc., may have already begun to initiate the development of a disease that is being transferred through-out the world as it gains in potency and will create yet another "mud hole" in which humanity spins its wheels such as in the case of the concept of "Peace".
Yet, some humans insist that humanity is smart enough to find a means to get out of its present practice of unsustainable Peace, that is if humanity takes the time to analyze the phenomena we call "peace" and create a viable algorithm in which to derive an answer from... including the recognition that peace and its obverse (war/conflict) are portrayed in a commonly occurring mental pattern suggesting it needs a different pattern that may require different labeling and different definitions... and yet humanity persists in looking at Peace (and love, etc...), in the same way. In other words, humanity is bogged down in a rut... a rut that causes humanity to repeat itself in the same self-defeating ways because it is tied to a planetary environment that is forcing it to do so.
Interestingly enough, the previous "love" example from Robert Sternberg can be "coupled" to a study he did not intelligence, because it too reveals a recurring basic pattern: Triarchic Theory of Intelligence. And though the reader might want to argue that the theory of "multiple" intelligences refutes an inference for a "two" or "three"-patterned cognitive repetition, it is necessary to point out that the inferred "multiplicity" is not a pattern that is widely used, and even if it were, it nonetheless describes the presence of a conservation to human cognition. In other words, the "multiplicity" is not enumerable, it is another set proportion set against the other patterns which can be identified and illustrate the presence of a repetition. In some cases, the usage of an intent to suggest "multiplicity" is like the child's behavior of "one-upmanship", in that one child attempts to claim superiority by advancing the perspective of more than two, or three, or four... etc... In short, we have a "Three/Many" pattern.
However, let us again point out that it is not that humanity is incapable of thinking in more complex and larger quantitative terms, it is being forced to comply with environmental pressures which induce an environmentally-artificialized conservation "law" in order that biological activity will comply with the direction of demise it is being subjected to. One should also be aware of the limitation being placed on the environmental impact for the influence of intelligence which is stressed by an inclination to think in terms of the social environment, and not overall cognition as it relates to the larger planetary influences involving a progressive deterioration.
(Notice the presence of a dichotomy with respect to the introductory remarks in the following excerpt between Terman and Thorndike taken from a larger article on Human Intelligence in the Britannica).
(Human Intelligence has been described as the) mental quality that consists of the abilities to learn from experience, adapt to new situations, understand and handle abstract concepts, and use knowledge to manipulate one's environment.
Much of the excitement among investigators in the field of intelligence derives from their attempts to determine exactly what intelligence is. Different investigators have emphasized different aspects of intelligence in their definitions. For example, in a 1921 symposium the American psychologists Lewis M. Terman and Edward L. Thorndike differed over the definition of intelligence, Terman stressing the ability to think abstractly and Thorndike emphasizing learning and the ability to give good responses to questions.
More recently, however, psychologists have generally agreed that adaptation to the environment is the key to understanding both what intelligence is and what it does. Such adaptation may occur in a variety of settings: a student in school learns the material he needs to know in order to do well in a course; a physician treating a patient with unfamiliar symptoms learns about the underlying disease; or an artist reworks a painting to convey a more coherent impression. For the most part, adaptation involves making a change in oneself in order to cope more effectively with the environment, but it can also mean changing the environment or finding an entirely new one.
Effective adaptation draws upon a number of cognitive processes, such as perception, learning, memory, reasoning, and problem solving. The main emphasis in a definition of intelligence, then, is that it is not a cognitive or mental process per se but rather a selective combination of these processes that is purposively directed toward effective adaptation. Thus, the physician who learns about a new disease adapts by perceiving material on the disease in medical literature, learning what the material contains, remembering the crucial aspects that are needed to treat the patient, and then utilizing reason to solve the problem of applying the information to the needs of the patient. Intelligence, in total, has come to be regarded not as a single ability but as an effective drawing together of many abilities. This has not always been obvious to investigators of the subject, however; indeed, much of the history of the field revolves around arguments regarding the nature and abilities that constitute intelligence.
Theories of intelligence, as is the case with most scientific theories, have evolved through a succession of models. Four of the most influential paradigms have been:
Analogies that compare the human brain to a computer suggest that biological approaches to intelligence should be viewed as complementary to, rather than as replacing, other approaches. For example, when a person learns a new German vocabulary word, he becomes aware of a pairing, say, between the German term Die Farbe and the English word colour, but a trace is also laid down in the brain that can be accessed when the information is needed. Although relatively little is known about the biological bases of intelligence, progress has been made on three different fronts, all involving studies of brain operation.
Cognitive-contextual theories deal with the way that cognitive processes operate in various settings. Two of the major theories of this type are that of the American psychologist Howard Gardner and that of Sternberg. In 1983 Gardner challenged the assumption of a single intelligence by proposing a theory of “multiple intelligences.” Earlier theorists had gone so far as to contend that intelligence comprises multiple abilities. But Gardner went one step farther, arguing that intelligences are multiple and include, at a minimum, linguistic, logical-mathematical, spatial, musical, bodily-kinesthetic, interpersonal, and intrapersonal intelligence.
Some of the intelligences proposed by Gardner resembled the abilities proposed by psychometric theorists, but others did not. For example, the idea of a musical intelligence was relatively new, as was the idea of a bodily-kinesthetic intelligence, which encompassed the particular abilities of athletes and dancers. Gardner derived his set of intelligences chiefly from studies of cognitive processing, brain damage, exceptional individuals, and cognition across cultures. He also speculated on the possibility of an existential intelligence (a concern with “ultimate” issues, such as the meaning of life), although he was unable to isolate an area of the brain that was dedicated to the consideration of such questions. Gardner's research on multiple intelligences led him to claim that most concepts of intelligence had been ethnocentric and culturally biased but that his was universal, because it was based upon biological and cross-cultural data as well as upon data derived from the cognitive performance of a wide array of people.
An alternative approach that took similar account of cognition and cultural context was Sternberg's “triarchic” theory, which he proposed in Beyond IQ: A Triarchic Theory of Human Intelligence (1985). Both Gardner and Sternberg believed that conventional notions of intelligence were too narrow; Sternberg, however, questioned how far psychologists should go beyond traditional concepts, suggesting that musical and bodily-kinesthetic abilities are talents rather than intelligences because they are fairly specific and are not prerequisites for adaptation in most cultures.
Sternberg posited three (“triarchic”) integrated and interdependent aspects of intelligence, which are concerned, respectively, with a person's internal world, the external world, and experience. The first aspect comprises the cognitive processes and representations that form the core of all thought. The second aspect consists of the application of these processes and representations to the external world. The triarchic theory holds that more-intelligent persons are not just those who can execute many cognitive processes quickly or well; rather, their greater intelligence is reflected in knowing their strengths and weaknesses and capitalizing upon their strengths while compensating for their weaknesses. More-intelligent persons, then, find a niche in which they can operate most efficiently. The third aspect of intelligence consists of the integration of the internal and external worlds through experience. This includes the ability to apply previously learned information to new or wholly unrelated situations.
Some psychologists believe that intelligence is reflected in an ability to cope with relatively novel situations. This explains why experience can be so important. For example, intelligence might be measured by placing people in an unfamiliar culture and assessing their ability to cope with the new situation. According to Sternberg, another facet of experience that is important in evaluating intelligence is the automatization of cognitive processing, which occurs when a relatively novel task becomes familiar. The more a person automatizes the tasks of daily life, the more mental resources he will have for coping with novelty.
Other intelligences were proposed in the late 20th century. In 1990 the psychologists John Mayer and Peter Salovey defined the term emotional intelligence as:
The ability to perceive emotions, to access and generate emotions so as to assist thought, to understand emotions and emotional knowledge, and to reflectively regulate emotions so as to promote emotional and intellectual growth.
The four aspects identified by Mayer and Salovey involve:
(a) recognizing one's own emotions as well as the emotions of others,
(b) applying emotion appropriately to facilitate reasoning,
(c) understanding complex emotions and their influence on succeeding emotional states,
(d) having the ability to manage one's emotions as well as those of others.
The concept of emotional intelligence was popularized by the psychologist and journalist Daniel Goleman in books published from the 1990s. Several tests developed to measure emotional intelligence have shown modest correlations between emotional intelligence and conventional intelligence.
Hemispheric (brain) studies
One biological approach has centred upon types of intellectual performance as they relate to the regions of the brain from which they originate. In her research on the functions of the brain's two hemispheres, the psychologist Jerre Levy and others found that the left hemisphere is superior in analytical tasks, such as are involved in the use of language, while the right hemisphere is superior in many forms of visual and spatial tasks. Overall, the right hemisphere tends to be more synthetic and holistic in its functioning than the left. Nevertheless, patterns of hemispheric specialization are complex and cannot easily be generalized.
The specialization of the two hemispheres of the brain is exemplified in an early study by Levy and the American neurobiologist Roger W. Sperry, who worked with split-brain patients—that is, individuals whose corpus callosum had been severed. Because the corpus callosum links the two hemispheres in a normal brain, in these patients the hemispheres function independently of each other.
Levy and Sperry asked split-brain patients to hold small wooden blocks, which they could not see, in either their left or their right hand and to match them with corresponding two-dimensional pictures. They found that patients using the left hand did better at this task than those using the right; but, of more interest, they found that the two groups of patients appeared to use different strategies in solving the problem. Their analysis demonstrated that the right hand (dominated by the left hemisphere of the brain) functioned better with patterns that are readily described in words but are difficult to discriminate visually. In contrast, the left hand (dominated by the right hemisphere) was more adept with patterns requiring visual discrimination.
A second front of biological research has involved the use of brain-wave recordings. The German-born British psychologist Hans Eysenck, for example, studied brain patterns and speed of response in people taking intelligence tests. Earlier brain-wave research had studied the relation between these waves and performance on ability tests or in various cognitive tasks. Researchers in some of these studies found a relationship between certain aspects of electroencephalogram (EEG) waves, event-related-potential (ERP) waves, and scores on a standard psychometric test of intelligence.
A third and more recent front of research involves the measurement of blood flow in the brain, which is a fairly direct indicator of functional activity in brain tissue. In such studies the amount and location of blood flow in the brain is monitored while subjects perform cognitive tasks. The psychologist John Horn, a prominent researcher in this area, found that older adults show decreased blood flow to the brain, that such decreases are greater in some areas of the brain than in others, and that the decreases are particularly notable in those areas responsible for close concentration, spontaneous alertness, and the encoding of new information. Using positron emission tomography (PET), the psychologist Richard Haier found that people who perform better on conventional intelligence tests often show less activation in relevant portions of the brain than do those who perform less well. In addition, neurologists Antonio Damasio and Hannah Damasio and their colleagues used PET scans and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to study brain function in subjects performing problem-solving tasks. These findings affirmed the importance of understanding intelligence as a faculty that develops over time.
Source: "Intelligence, Human." Encyclopædia Britannica Ultimate Reference Suite, 2013.
Not only how so-called intelligence develops over time, but how basic cognitive behavior is exhibited with the same recurring underlying patterns suggesting the presence of a cognitive conservation ("conversation" between biology and planetary processes) "law" of organization related to the cyclicity and (cyclical) deterioration of the planet... like a wheel whose spin is being slowed to due varying frictions causing deterioration.