Let's face it, humanity has a lousy definition, accompanying practice, and analysis of peace.
Let's imagine a situation in which no one wanted anything to do with the U.S. It is not interested in any trade agreements nor wanted to establish any relationship for any purpose. Nobody wanted anything to do with the U.S. as if it were a neighborhood kid that was never chosen to participate on a team or as someone nobody thought about asking to a school dance. It's not that they were hated or disliked, it's that they were simply water flowing beneath a bridge suspended high overhead... and everyone, because of signs, custom, tails of foreboding, assumed traditions, or what have you; they all chose to walk on the bridge, fish from the bridge, throw rocks from the bridge, take pictures on the bridge and scrawl their names on its side— instead of going against an established "social grain" and venturing to the banks below... because they were nicknamed the doorways to hell.
In such a scenario, by extension, viewing the U.S. as a person might invoke representative ideas related to individuals caught up in such a situation... whereas they might become introverted or extroverted... or both under different occasions. In other words, staying on the bridge, for whatever reason was an unacknowledged act of introversion while going against the established behavior wwould be an act of extroversion... both of which are accompanied by whatever type of rationalization one uses to justify their behavior when called into question, or the occasional philosophical reflection.
Introvert and Extravert
(Introvert and Extravert are) basic personality types according to the theories of the 20th-century Swiss psychiatrist Carl Jung. According to these theories, an introvert is a person whose interest is generally directed inward toward his own feelings and thoughts, in contrast to an extravert, whose attention is directed toward other people and the outside world. The typical introvert is shy, contemplative, and reserved and tends to have difficulty adjusting to social situations. Excessive daydreaming and introspection, careful balancing of considerations before reaching decisions, and withdrawal under stress are also typical of the introverted personality. The extravert, by contrast, is characterized by outgoingness, responsiveness to other persons, activity, aggressiveness, and the ability to make quick decisions.
This typology is now regarded as overly simplistic because almost no one can be accurately described as wholly introvert or extravert. Most persons fall somewhere between Jung's two types—i.e., they are ambiverts, in whom introversive and extraversive tendencies exist in a rough balance and are manifested at different times in response to different situations.Source: "Introvert and Extravert." Encyclopædia Britannica Ultimate Reference Suite, 2013.
Like many dichotomies, they are often superseded by the addition of a third consideration... yet the peace/war example is retained and not permitted to included more expansive considerations... because like fear, disease and numerous other occasions humans encounter, there is some resource (money, land, sex, political power, business advantage, control of Congress, etc.,) that becomes available by keeping the public in a state of apprehension, depression, illusion, delusion, sick, frail, and all the more dependent. Like a binary star cluster caught in an orbit that the human mind can not wrench it free from.
Binary Star also called double star
(A Binary Star refers to a) pair of stars in orbit around their common centre of gravity. A high proportion, perhaps one-half, of all stars in the Milky Way Galaxy are binaries or members of more complex multiple systems. Some binaries form a class of variable stars (see eclipsing variable star).
If the images of the two components of a binary star system can be separated by telescope, it is called a visual binary. Stars whose components are too close to each other to be distinguished visually can sometimes be identified as binaries by spectroscopic observation; as the members of these spectroscopic binaries move alternately toward the Earth and away from it, a Doppler effect of frequency change is observed in their spectral lines. Binary stars are sometimes detectable by changes in apparent brightness, as the darker (or dimmer) star occludes its brighter companion. Some stellar systems with so-called invisible companions are binaries; these companions might be detected through changes in the proper motion—that is, the rate of motion of the visible stars across the background of more distant stars.Source: "Binary Star." Encyclopædia Britannica Ultimate Reference Suite, 2013.
The reason for placing the reference to binary stars is to point out the suspected quantity, without there being a similar encyclopedic reference to single or triple star organizations, though there is a referential indication so-named as "complex multiple systems". To such a report one must ask whether binary stars actually exist as a dominant pattern, or are astronomers inclined to see "twos" more than any other pattern? Would a different physiology (other than human?) bring to the table of discussion a more enhanced perspective, because humanity's binocular vision predisposes them towards using an early mode of referencing in groups of two? Also, why aren't "twos" a predominant pattern in all or most things on Earth, unless the binary star phenomena has its own influence just as do patterns-of-two in human ideas. Whereas a person "absorbed" with seeing groups of two may indeed impose this pattern even if no such pattern exists, can binary star clusters influence pattern-of-two thinking, or are they different expressions of the same influence? And why are there no recurring triple, quadruple, etc., star groupings... unless perhaps the Milky Way Galaxy is too young and the apparent dominance of "binary" stars is an indication of its youthful age... to be followed by a mature version of itself where there will be dominant recurrence of other star cluster patterns? Because humanity's vision is so short-term and narrow, its inclined egotism wants to claim a sort of permanence in what is being perceived, as if to establish some superior grasp of the cosmos when such simplistic patterns are promoted as a stationary given.
With respect to the term "dichotomy", let's look at a definition for those who may not be familiar with it:
Dichotomy (from Greek dicha, “apart,” and tomos, “cutting”)
(A dichotomy is) a form of logical division consisting of the separation of a class into two subclasses, one of which has and the other has not a certain quality or attribute. Men thus may be divided into professional men and men who are not professionals; each of these may be subdivided similarly. On the principle of contradiction this division is both exhaustive and exclusive; there can be no overlapping, and no members of the original genus or the lower groups are omitted. This method of classification, though formally accurate, has slight value in the exact sciences, partly because at every step one of the two groups is merely negatively characterized and is usually an artificial, motley class; but it sets forth clearly the gradual descent from the most inclusive genus (summum genus) through species to the lowest class (infima species), which is divisible only into individual persons or things.
In astronomy the term is used for the aspect of the Moon or of a planet when apparently half illuminated, so that the illuminated part of its disk has the form of a semicircle.Source: "Dichotomy." Encyclopædia Britannica Ultimate Reference Suite, 2013.
Unfortunately, in so many definitions we find an exclusion of considering counter-part ideas such as singularities, triplicities, etc... In other words, definitions tend to be inclusive... to be segregated from being constructed with other ideas they might be correlated to, or even suggest that such a consideration is a worthwhile pursuit. While we might expect this is a dictionary, using an encyclopedia as a dictionary can sometimes yield extended considerations or "inter-mixed dimensions" of perception.
Another problem with definitions arises when we encounter a reader who is not predisposed towards assigning some numerical indexing to that which they are reading, even if such a consideration has been pointed out on numerous occasions as being part of the necessary interpretation. For example, though the foregoing definition of a dichotomy has the word "two", it may not be removed from this setting and placed into other subject areas, much less be used to develop a list of patterns-of-two that is self-generated, and not merely the extension of someone else's list who also may have got theirs from someone, etc... But for those that do, the application of a pattern-of-two idea using numbers may be of interest such as in the case of a Binary number system and its application to computers:
Binary Number System:
(A Binary Number System) in mathematics, (is a) positional numeral system employing 2 as the base and so requiring only two different symbols for its digits, 0 and 1, instead of the usual 10 different symbols needed in the decimal system. The importance of the binary system to information theory and computer technology derives mainly from the compact and reliable manner in which 0s and 1s can be represented in electromechanical devices with two states—such as “on-off,” “open-closed,” or “go–no go.”Source: "Binary Number System." Encyclopædia Britannica Ultimate Reference Suite, 2013.
Code used in digital computers, based on a binary number system in which there are only two possible states, off and on, usually symbolized by 0 and 1. Whereas in a decimal system, which employs 10 digits, each digit position represents a power of 10 (100, 1,000, etc.), in a binary system each digit position represents a power of 2 (4, 8, 16, etc.). A binary code signal is a series of electrical pulses that represent numbers, characters, and operations to be performed. A device called a clock sends out regular pulses, and components such as transistors switch on (1) or off (0) to pass or block the pulses. In binary code, each decimal number (0–9) is represented by a set of four binary digits, or bits. The four fundamental arithmetic operations (addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division) can all be reduced to combinations of fundamental Boolean algebraic operations.Source: Binary Code: Encyclopædia Britannica Ultimate Reference Suite, 2013.
By continuing to use the on/off dimensions of an electrical circuit to power various products and associated behaviors of living systems, the "two" structure takes on a life of its own and is used as a truth value to justify other two-patterned occurrences. Because so much of present day life revolves around electronics and its supportive manufacturing, banking, shipping etc., functions, behavior can unknowingly become part of the "on/off" cycle, particularly if this reference is distributed in other considerations such as biology and physics. Even though there may be other patterns, if a "two" pattern is being used to generate resources for living; it will become that which is used as a platform upon which to perceive all the world... such as the peace/war event which some might render into an on/off metaphor. With such a platform to step outward from onto a prevailing social vessel, social currents and tides may be used to force a rhythm whose undercurrent can be supportive or trip one up if a person decides to take a step not in rhythm to the pulses set into sway by social standards. It matters not if one is correct in their perception, if the perception of those in charge of commodities needed for survival work in concert with the pattern others are using... even if all of them are unaware that they are, trying to change a dichotomy into a setting with a third option may produce a situation in which one finds themselves butting heads with one or another established system... unless one can get the system to change by force or persuasion... though it may take generations to do so.
Continuing to rely on the presently used electron-based applications in technology which demands that we utilize a two-patterned on/off sequencing related to the flow and stoppage of current, those familiar with genetics know that the usage of a double-base amino acid system does not satisfy the requirements for the quantity of amino acids that are being used and coded for in biological mechanisms. To this end, researchers have sought to develop a tri-nomial computing system based on quantum (smaller/integral component) mechanics. Instead of merely focusing on the seat-of-the-pants (shock/no-shock) property of the electron, its three-quark/three anti-quark properties would be utilized... if not the properties of combining the quantum properties of the three large atomic particles noted as electron, neutron, and proton. The fact that that we would then have a computing system based on a "three-patterned" configuration is sometimes lost amongst those that shy away from making physics appear as simple as it is... and still be able to understand it themselves.
However, some have suggested that we turn to the adoption of a molecular brand of computing thereby being able to utilize the "triplet-code" configuration that is already well known, instead of expending resources in the area of quantum computing which largely remains bound to theories which are at present insurmountable... and the money, time and effort pursuing the attempted development of such would merely bring us to the present point of molecular computing which would (assumedly) be that much further if we were to concentrate in this area.
Yet, neither of which is focused on a better analysis, understanding and application of peace... because it is viewed as being most futile due to an allowance of human greed that is permitted to run rampant in some sectors of society... particular when businesss, government and religion are involved... since they are tools for bringing people together into an aggregate for the purpose of carrying out someone's personal motivations... and let all those who oppose them, be damned. Both a binary and trinary computer configuration are being used as analogies in the present discussion, as a means of referencing basic numerically identifiable cognitive patterns which continue to crop up again; and again due to impositions placed on human physiology by the incremental deteriorations of the planet that require rationalized adjustments to be made to our ideas, as a survival mechanism attempting to maintain some level of equilibrium.
Just as we are having trouble in the development of utilizing a "three" placement in computers... whether it is molecularly or quantum mechanically based, so are we having trouble in moving beyond the binary peace/war configuration. In other words, we need to evolve a higher-based thinking formula, but that this is being kept from us because present institutions of business, government and religion are too established with a two-based type of thinking; or that we can't evolve because the incrementally deteriorating state of the planet and solar system force us to adopt a conservation of thought processing. For example, to say our present manner of thinking is limited... is conserved... can explain itself by describing the concept of God as part of this limitation. Though we attach labels of unlimitedness to such a word (Omniscient, Omnipresent, Omnipotent ), our labels exhibit a limitation nonetheless, because the concept of a God is a means of expressing limitation that deludes deludes us to think otherwise... as a type of self-imposed distraction that does not want to be confronted by such an "ego-suppressant". To such an end, it is not humanity that is made in the image of god, but a god made in the image of an egotistical humanity... and it is not that God is jealous, but that humans are and want to justify the wantonness of their humanity in mangled religious interpretations and descriptions. Likewise for the case with respect to economic growth. We "fudge the numbers" to delude ourselves or others into thinking their is growth, when in fact some measure of growth may take place amongst people, or entire sectors of society... but the whole of the society is not actually improving.
It is rather unfortunate that so many researchers are unknowingly inclined to reduce alternative computer designs to utilizing a binomial system that relies on an on/off switching mechanism... as if it were a counter-part of the peace/war switch. Since the peace/war dichotomy is a much older social switching mechanism, it too may have an earlier form... that we do not necessarily have to claim is "built into us", even if it is because of the night/day switching biological life has been subjected to... in an environment that is headed along a course of incremental degradation, and will no doubt affect further thinking patterns which may be following the course of decadence instead of trying to remove ourselves from the influence.
In our discussion of the presumed existence of a dichotomously bound peace/war sequence, and note that this parity is of a "two-patterned" form, a comparison of other two-patterned ideas from different subject areas may be helpful in elucidating what influences such constructs, particularly when we turn to basic physiology and basic environmental influences there-of, even though these too may have more basic configurations... that is, origins. For example, in identifying the two-patterned peace/war sequence, we might they reconstruct a precursor origin consisting of the physiological dimension of speech... that is, babbling in infants, even though there are different types of vocal sounds prior to the development of babbling. Those who have studied babbling have claimed to identify "chunks" or "chunking" of two-letter groupings such as ba, da, di, ni, etc., while those studying computer science might want to associate this physiological information to the basic equipotential configuration of a "bit" (binary + digit) sequence as the underlying basic unit in a group of eight to create a "byte" representing one letter of the alphabet or number system. In other words, the "bit" represents the smallest (known) equi-potential on/off state of an electrical impulse that requires four of these "expressions" to create one letter or number... thus representing a very wordy language... so to speak. (It takes a lot of electronic "noise" to create one letter or number, not to mention a word, sentence, paragraph or chapter...) Wordy and rather Spartan languages can be seen if one compares different languages having translated the same piece of information. The following image displays the same poem translated into several languages. A simple visual measurement of the unreadable text shows that the English on the far left is somewhere in the middle with respect to length. In other words, the same piece of information is spoken with fewer or more words in different languages.
Interestingly, the poem describes a recurrence of patterns-of-three in the New Testament, and when compared to the former Old testament, thus provides an historical representation of a change in human cognition, because there is an increased concentrated usage of "threes", describing what can be interpreted as a type of maturational development.
But let's back up a bit and provide a thrown-together list for correlative purposes:
With respect to the binary used in computers that is in turn used for communication purposes via electronic (wave) transmissions, there is a lot of "noise" in the system which can alternatively be described as errors due to distance, power of transmission/sensitivity of reception, and the type of language being used. In other words, when waves of sound, heat, light, or electricity are converted from one state into another so as to facilitate transmission over, around, through different mediums; they are often converted and then sent through a "descrambler" such as the human brain... though electronic "brains" can be used. Different types of translating devices yield different types of translations that may not be fully nor accurately understood by the person(s) intent on retrieving a message. But not all mistakes are necessarily bad, as when someone misinterprets an insult and changes it into a compliment that makes everyone laugh or when a teacher tells a class one thing and the students hear something else in accord with what they want to hear... making the instructor shake their head and realizing they have got to engage in a more simplistic form of instruction... so that lessons that are taught are actually learned.
And yet, what may have been overlooked in the preceding is the presence of a conservation. In other words, why have a simplistic night/day sequence followed by a development due to a doubling of cell divisions? Why not have something more complex in order to create more complex life forms? Why not have brains with 1,000 or more I.Q.s? Why have a bilateral body plan for all life forms to express, and radial formulas found in star fishes, octopuses and plants are merely displays of errors or holes in communications between organisms and the environment? In other words, if a life form that would normally develop in a bilateral pattern is subjected to a cell, capsule, or container with multiple perforations... would not their inclination be to seek out the world through that channel which is most prominent? Radial forms of life may thus represent more pliable organisms that are adaptable to different environmental changes... that if were deliberately altered along a given course, would thus produce a viability more conducive to an inevitable future?
Because Peace and War are "everywhere" occurring from time to time in terms of human activity (insect, reptile, fish, animal wars notwithstanding), we might want to view them in terms of a radial floor plan instead of the assigned peace/war dichotomy. However, they don't occur "everywhere", and the absence of war does not necessarily mean peace, unless this is the only definition to be used. The same goes for war. What criteria do we use in describing war? Are all conflicts to be labeled as wars? Are all wars to be described as between different nations, ethnic groups or even the two genders? How about different age or economic groups or amongst Corporations who engage in spying and counter-espionage? Can peace and war be stopped or started like a water faucet, or are they wave patterns consistent with the energy cycles of the planet in this solar system within this galaxy, situation in a Universe that may or may not be but one amongst many universes in a cluster or dimension? Then again, is humanity part of some galactic "error or noise" in a larger system exceeding human comprehension?
If we assume humanity has "great potential" that needs only to be unlocked before it can be unrealized because it is either an inherent reality or possibility because people are made in the "image of their god"; then we must likewise consider that something or someone is keeping humanity from achieving all that it can become... like a unit of compressed (data) information that can not fully unravel, for one reason or another. Yet, since certain kinds of people appear to reoccur throughout the world with respect to interests, morality, etc..., we can view them as recurring letters, numbers, words or number sequences. Likewise, the presumed infrequency of certain kinds of talented people, smart people, and geniuses; thus represent infrequent letters, numbers, words, or number sequences... as are looked for by cryptographers... or those who want to decode a "secret" or unknown message. But if certain behavior such as peace and/or war come up with greater or lesser frequency under different conditions, there must be that which can alter the frequency and thus is capable of either altering the message or altering the way the message is to be interpreted. If we can discover "codes" in genetics, philosophy (logic), music, physics, mathematics, language, etc..., then perhaps all the codes constitute a code which requires a Behistun Rock, Galle or Rosetta Stone Trilingual inscription themselves. Hence, the peace/war label is part of a transcription that needs to be deciphered in a larger context outside mere sociological contexts involving human-related descriptions of peace and/or war.
When we look at a table at relative frequencies of letters found in English texts, we see that there is a lot of repetition... like that found in babbling and circadian rhythms. The following chart (accompanied by another hypothetical consideration involving patterns of thought, was taken from a table offered in the Britannica (2013 Ultimate Reference Suite) in the "Information Theory" article.
Information theory is an interesting field of research since it deals with essentially everything... and is a sort of epistemology, whether we claim something as a reference, expression, communication, data storage, or whatever. We may not interpret what is "being said" or stored in a given manner, and indeed may make tremendous errors... such as that which we can ascribe to humanity's present understanding of life... even though some relative level of complexity has been achieved around which we live, prosper and eventually die. The ignorance of the past from our perspective is just as comparable to our ignorance of the present compared to civilizations that may yet come in the distant future. And yet they too may base a lot of their interpretations on our level and type of ignorance just as we do to ideas created in the distant past. Far too often civilizations reveal themselves to be little more than repositories of ignorance and misinterpretations... regardless of how many people believe in a particular idea of nonsense or how much money and ceremony are applied thereto. For example, human sacrifice and slavery were once viewed as accepted commonalities based on the rational judgment of a given time and place... and no doubt would be once again practiced if there were no laws forbidding such practices. In other words, the mind of humanity is not so distant from the past that such thinking is universally felt to be wrong... just as some do not believe killing an adulterous mate, child pornography, homosexuality, rape, or various other crimes as being wrong... to which we should include the many disgusting criminal acts and lies carried out by religions, businesses and governments. Because Information theory is a form of applied philosophy, it bears looking more closely into. We shall do so in the next essay for this series.